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Methods of Carpet Tile Construction

Needle Punch Carpet

Needle punch carpet construction is an assembly of fibre webs compacted and interlocked, using barbed felting needles and can have different textural effects, such as corduroy, rib or hobnail. Using this method of construction it is possible to produce a hard wearing carpet/carpet tile at a relatively low cost.

Level Loop

Most common construction for cheap rugs and wall to wall carpet in Europe and Asia. This type consists of loops constructed at the same height. Patterns may be printed on the surface of this style type. This type offers a relatively smooth, homogenous surface. Lower density construction may allow the loops to be dispersed farther apart providing the illusion of texture.

Level Loop Pile Diagram

Structured Loop Pile

This carpet style utilizes a combination of high and low loop pile to create patterns or textures and is widely used in the carpet tile industry. Cut and loop pile structures are generally random coloured providing the appearance of colour splotches over the entire surface. These styles offer good performance characteristics and random colourations provide good soil – hiding abilities.

Structured Loop Pile Diagram

Velour (also called Plush or Velvet)

Velour provide a more formal appearance than other cut pile constructions.
They are subject to revealing vacuum cleaner sweep marks and footprints due to light reflection, similar to a Saxony. Delustered (non-shiny) yarns may reduce this shade variation. Plushes tend to be more subject to pile reversal or water marking.  Water marking is the result of permanent pile reversal in localized areas. Watermarking provides the appearance of a wet surface in darker shaded areas. This is considered a normal occurrence for Plushes and is not considered a manufacturing defect.

Velour Plush or Velvet Illustration


A Saxony is a cut pile carpet in which two or more piles of yarn have been twisted and heat-set so that the tip of each carpet tuft is distinguishable on the pile surface. Saxonies have the tendency to show footprints and vacuum cleaner sweep direction is changed. This is not a defect of any kind, but merely a characteristic of this carpet construction.

Saxony Texture Illustration


Frieze – A true Frieze is similar to a texture in that footprints and vacuum sweeper, marks are disguised. The textured appearance is acquired by placed as high twist level on the plied yarn.  This high twist level causes the tuft to twist back upon itself providing a kinked appearance. In general terms, higher twist levels provide enhanced performance characteristics, when compared to lower twist products with the same construction attributes.

Frieze Texture Illustration